It was refreshing to see Bezos show off his lunar module, Blue Moon and its capabilities. Travel to our Moon can take less than a week, and offers a staging ground with an escape velocity substantially lower than Earth’s.

The Moon has a surface area larger than the entire continent of Africa. The State of Texas is 150 times smaller in surface area than the Moon. With a very thin atmosphere, high speed trains could travel the Moon at 1,000 km/hr, or higher.

Musk has touted the importance of Martian habitation. It’s fine that he works on that, while Musk and Bezos each grab roughly $5 billion in federal subsidies per annum they have produced greater results then would have been achieved by a NASA program for a higher cost.

Economists estimate that in 2019 dollars, the Apollo Program cost NASA $ 119 billion. Estimates of the per shot cost for Space Shuttle program put the cost at around $ 500 million per mission.

Lacking a launch program, the Air Force and NASA have used a combination of Amazon and Tesla launch programs, the United Launch Alliance, consisting of Boeing and Lockheed and even Russian government launch programs.

The European Space Agency also uses the Ariane program with launch costs around $150 million per mission.

Comet Amino Acids

Having completed the 11th grade early, pondering summer and dreading a stint in mosquito infested singing camp, complete with bad food and latrines, my mind wandered to the origins of life.

Don’t get me wrong, quite literally light came from darkness and the world was created in seven days. But new details emerge about some of the finer details.

The postulation the comets carry glycolic acids, glyceric acids and the amino acid glycene has the song leaders at summer camps atwitter composing new verse for the familiar campfire tunes.

We have known for some time that our solar system contains large stashes of methane is quite well understood. I think there are at least four new verses for Bill Grogan’s goat about the methane on the moon Titan.

Just like the goat had a formula for stopping the train, methane has a molecular formula CH4. Hydrocarbons like methane, propane and butane are found through out the solar system. This should lead us to search for the termites and farting cows of Titan.

One source for methane on earth are landfills, and we now endeavor to capture the methane and use it for productive purposes rather than allowing it to simply drift into the atmosphere.

While some might worry incessantly about the methane entering the atmosphere, with a molecular weight of 16.04 it is more buoyant than glycine which has a molecular weight of 75.07, making it one of the lightest amino acids. The glycine molecule contains a nitrogen atom, two oxygens, two carbons and five (5) hydrogen atoms.

But considering the postulate that comets contain molecular amino acids, combined with evolution created goats, termites and cows, all of with produce methane which is found in the solar system, it seems we have a chicken and egg question, or we have to admit the methane is produced in natural space dust processes without regard for organic activity.

One alternate view of the origin of amino acids is the idea that boiling oceans on earth, primarily in the locality of volcanic vents provided the chemistry needed to transform molecular aldehydes into amino acids. However aldehydes have been confirmed on comets which has caused excitement in the panspermia community.

In the panspermic line of thought, bacteria may have carried DNA between galaxies. The excitement crescendos when these thinkers consider a young Earth during the late bombardment period with warm oceans awaiting the arrival of DNA.

Asteroid Florence

Illustration of September 1, 2017 passing of Asteroid Florence from NASA

Picture of Asteroid Florence

Asteroid Florence Has Two Moons

3122 Florence at Wikipedia

March 15, 2016 near earth asteroid 2016 EF195

Burckle Crater is a hypothesized impact site popularized by, among others, Dallas Abbott of Columbia University, as well as other members of the Holocene Impact Working Group.

Some scientists are investigating the possibility of a strike in the Indian Ocean that precipitated myths in more than hundred cultural stories of a great flood accompanying many days and nights of rain.

[random_image]Another interesting proposal of the Holocene Impact Working Group is of an extra-terrestrial impact around 500 A.D. Evidence of tropical biological remains in Greenland ice core samples dating to this period align with the proposal that a strike in Australia may have been responsible. Historical records in England document that by 535 A.D. a mini ice age gripped the region.

Did an asteroid strike in Australia plunge Anglo-Saxon England into a mini ice-age?


PPC abbreviation

Pay per click or PPC are paid ads on SERP’s.


First, the SERP is the Search Engine Result Page, or SERP for short. Every search you will notice that there are advertisements at the top and to the right of the search results. Most people have learned to read around the advertising, just like we read a newspaper, and that is why for Web Atlanta the advertising is only a stop gap measure while our organic campaigns have time to reach fruition.[random_image]

In addition to Google, Yahoo and Bing search results or paid ads, there are content networks which you might have seen as Ads by Google in many sites. You pay when somebody clicks on your Ad. These are generally ineffective for all but the largest multi-million dollar buzz campaign.

Pay per click (PPC) is an advertising system offered major search engines for their search results pages. The advertisers bid on keyword phrases relevant to their business. The bid amount is deducted when an ad is clicked by the consumer. Every PPC ad is related to a set of keywords or search phrases or specific, general, broad or single search phrase or keywords. So when you join to the PPC system you have to choose one or more keywords or search phrases related to your business and related to your website. Only those websites that have already participated in a PPC network will show up when your ad’s keyword match the content of a search. Further the search engines match the ad content and the landing page to yhe search topic. Then your advertisement(s) may show up in sponsored ads.

When a search phrase matchea your PPC ad to the keyphrase or keyword search phrase your Ad will appear adjacent to or above organic results on search engine results pages. Such advertisements are called sponsored links or sponsored ads, and appear adjacent to or above organic results on the SERP. The higher you bid for a keyword, the more likely you can show highly on the SERP. Better designed ads and landing pages can reduce the bid required for top ranking. PPC bidding strategies involve acheiving higher ranking and PPC bidding A-B testing can be used to measure the amount which you want to spend and the effectiveness against a chosen set of keywords, landing page design and ad design. When a visitor clicks on your Ad in search network or content network it’s called CPC or Cost Per Click.

Tau Ceti

The closest star system with planets might well be the Tau Ceti solar system, less than 20 light years from the earth. There’s a lot of excitement about Tau Ceti, as we add space telescopes to our astronomical research capabilities, some scientists think they have discovered a planet in the inhabitable zone of the solar system. In short, a planet orbiting a star needs to receive the solar radiation to maintain a temperature where water is liquid, not always ice or steam. More on the Tau Ceti here.

Australia Comet Impact

If some scientists are correct, 536 A.D. might have been the year of a double comet impact that caused tsunamis and cooled the Earth for a decade. While many scientists who study the likelihood of a collision between Earth and a large meteor, comet or asteroid discount the possibility of major events in the Holocene era, a few scientists are looking carefully at the evidence.

Holocene Impact Working Group

In a 2010 National Geographic article Richard Lovett wrote about the Holocene Impact Working group and the hypothesis that a space lump impacted Earth in the Gulf of Carpentraria in Australia, article here. The impact location is between Australia and New Guinea. While Sidney occupies south eastern Australia and Perth is in the south west, this gulf is a sparsly settled area of the continent.

Tunguska event

In 1908 a strange explosion, 1,000 times larger than Hiroshima struck Siberia, Russia. We now know the a space rock exploded above the Earth, and the story of a man at a trading post 40 miles from the center (who survived) is retold here. The event tore up 800 square miles of forest, roughly the size of Lake Okeechobee in Florida. Had the event occured directly over Berlin, which is west a ways, two million people could have been killed or harmed. Luckily, large cities are really just pinpricks on our globe.

2002 Eastern Mediterranean event

In this Telegraph article the 2002 event is mentioned at the end. High in the upper atmosphere, south of Greece and north of Benghazi, it occured in the middle of the Meditarranean Sea.

Chelyabinsk meteor

Feb. 15, 2013 was the first time video cameras caught one of these events on a large scale. Earthsky did a three year hence post mortem, where in a city 800 miles east of Moscow 100’s were injured and dashboard cameras and video surveillance captured the deafening bang and blinding light of the explosion. According to Wikipedia, 7,200 buildings were damaged in six cities near Chelyabinsk, probably mostly broken windows.

Changing interpretations of dinosaur extinction since 1970

In 1970, climate change was probably the top theory for the extinction of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. By 1980 a theory of Walter Alvarez and colleagues, began to garner wider adoption among scientists. Worldwide iridium layer geology and the identification of the impact site off the Yucatan Peninsula are now accepted as being the top contributor to the decline of the thunder lizards. Some scientists say the destruction may have wiped out entire populations in a matter of hours.

February 6, 2016 event

Feb. 6 fireball fell into the ocean off the coast of Brazil and released energy roughly equivalent to 13,000 tons of TNT. This is significantly less than the Chelyabinsk impact, which injured more than 1,000 people with the equivalent of 500,000 tons of TNT

Clovis Man

Clovis man, the Sabre Tooth Tiger, the Wooly Mammoth, the Mastadon, and the Giant Sloth all inhabited North America yet disappeared 12,900 years ago. Scientists have always blamed this on climate change, or on Clovis Man himself, conjecturing that Clovis Man killed off the animals, destroying his food supply and starved himself to death.

But a geological layer called the Black Mat is being studied, and some, including the Holocene Impact Working Group, are looking closely at other possibilities. This recent extinction may not, after all, be the fault of Clovis Man and their Suburban Utility Vehicles.

Sometimes called the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis, geologists are dissecting a layer of earth from several dozen Clovis sites across the continent, and always finding a carbon rich layer of burnt material that can be dated to 12,900 years ago. One piece of yellow pine showed ‘vitrification’ on one side, evidence of a brief exposure to a temperature in excess of 6,000 degrees F.

However, much debate is ongoing as to the meaning of the black layer, and evidence cannot be neatly organized. Clovis man is thought to have crossed the ice bridge from Siberia to Alaska, a route that melted and ceased to exist around 10,000 years ago. Critics claim that Megafauna declined 1,000 years earlier, and ask why Bison and Brown Bears survived such an event.