Molten Metal Batteries

Molten iron batteries, also known as molten metal batteries, which are a type of rechargeable battery that uses molten iron as the negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a variety of other materials as the positive electrode.

Molten iron batteries have some advantages over other types of batteries. For example, they have a high energy density and can store large amounts of energy for long periods of time. They are also relatively low cost and environmentally friendly compared to other battery technologies.

One company that is currently developing molten iron batteries is Ambri, which is based in Massachusetts, USA. Ambri’s batteries use molten salt as the electrolyte and can be used for grid-scale energy storage applications.

Energy Density

The amount of energy a molten metal battery can store per cubic yard of volume will depend on several factors, including the specific design and materials used in the battery. However, it is possible to make an estimate based on the energy density of the materials typically used in molten metal batteries.

Molten metal batteries typically use molten salt electrolytes and anodes made of molten metals such as iron, zinc, or aluminum. The energy density of these materials varies, but as an example, the energy density of molten iron is approximately 1.76 megajoules per cubic meter (MJ/m³), or 51.1 kilowatt-hours per cubic yard (kWh/yd³).

However, it’s important to note that the total energy storage capacity of a molten metal battery will depend on more than just the energy density of the anode material. The design and configuration of the battery, as well as the properties of the electrolyte and other components, can also impact the amount of energy the battery can store.

Therefore, it’s difficult to provide a specific answer to this question without more information about the specific molten metal battery in question.

Home use

The average home in the United States consumes about 28 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity per day, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) data from 2020. This number can vary depending on factors such as the size of the home, the number of occupants, and the energy efficiency of appliances and electronics used in the home.

It’s worth noting that energy consumption can vary significantly based on geographical location and time of year. For example, homes in warmer climates may use more energy for air conditioning during the summer months, while homes in colder climates may use more energy for heating during the winter. Additionally, households with electric vehicles or other high-energy use appliances may consume more than the average.

Molten metal batteries typically operate at high temperatures, typically between 300 and 700 degrees Celsius (572 to 1292 degrees Fahrenheit), depending on the specific design and materials used.

The high operating temperature is necessary to keep the battery’s molten metal anode in a liquid state, which is required for the battery to function properly. The molten salt electrolyte used in these batteries typically also operates at high temperatures to maintain its liquid state.

The high operating temperature of molten metal batteries can present some challenges in terms of materials selection and system design, but it also has some advantages. For example, high-temperature operation can lead to higher energy density and better performance compared to some other battery technologies. Additionally, the high operating temperature can help to reduce the risk of thermal runaway or fire, since the battery’s materials are already in a molten state.

Iron melts at a temperature of 1,538 degrees Celsius (2,800 degrees Fahrenheit). This is the temperature at which solid iron transitions to a liquid state.

It’s worth noting that the melting point of iron can vary depending on the specific type of iron being considered. For example, cast iron, which contains higher levels of carbon and other elements, can have a lower melting point than pure iron. Similarly, iron alloys can have different melting points depending on their composition. But in general, the melting point of iron is around 1,538 degrees Celsius (2,800 degrees Fahrenheit).

Antimony is a chemical element with the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It is a silvery-white, brittle, and lustrous metalloid that is commonly used as a flame retardant in plastics, textiles, and other materials. Antimony has been known since ancient times, and it is often found in the earth’s crust in mineral deposits.

In addition to its use as a flame retardant, antimony has several other industrial applications. For example, it is used in the production of lead-acid batteries, which are commonly used in cars and other vehicles. Antimony is also used in the manufacture of semiconductors, as well as in the production of certain types of glass.

The melting point of antimony is 630.63 degrees Celsius (1,167.13 degrees Fahrenheit). At this temperature, solid antimony transforms into a liquid state. Antimony has a relatively low melting point compared to many other metals, which makes it relatively easy to melt and process.

The Ambri Company has posted a molten metal battery chemistry chart for their commercial product.

Calcium is a metal. It is a reactive, alkaline earth metal with the atomic number 20 and the symbol Ca in the periodic table. Calcium is a soft, silvery-white metal that is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust. It is an important element in the construction of bones and teeth, as well as being essential for many biological functions, including muscle and nerve function, blood clotting, and enzyme activity. Calcium is also commonly used in the production of alloys, such as aluminum-calcium alloys, and as a reducing agent in the production of metals such as thorium, uranium, and zirconium.

The melting point of calcium is 842 °C (1548 °F). At this temperature, solid calcium transitions into a liquid state. Calcium has a relatively low melting point compared to other metals, which makes it relatively easy to melt and cast. However, calcium is also a highly reactive metal and can react violently with water or air, so it must be handled with care.